Guide to Microcephaly: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment Methods, Life Expectancy, and Pictures
What is Microcephaly?
Microcephaly (my-kroh-SEF-uh-lee) is a rare neurological condition. The name means "small head." When comparing an infant with microcephaly to a normal infant of the same age and gender, the circumference of the head is significantly smaller.
This condition can be present at birth, a sign that brain did not develop properly in the womb, or appear when the child is a few years old. In the latter instance, the brain stops growing normally.
Generally, children with microcephaly have reduced life expectancies and poor brain function, though in 15 percent of cases children grow normally both mentally and physically.
The primary symptom of microcephaly is a smaller-than-average skull. If the microcephaly is severe, the child may also have a forehead that slopes backward.
A microcephalic child may also have:
- High-pitched cry
- Reduced appetite
- Severe developmental impairment
- Short stature
- Delayed motor functions
- Delayed speech
- Balance and coordination difficulties
- Facial distortions
- Other neurological and brain abnormalities
Some suffering from microcephaly have heads that grow beyond what is normally expected, but they will still have smaller heads that a person who is not suffering from the condition.
Microcephaly can be diagnosed before birth using a prenatal ultrasound.
After birth, the physician will measure the distance around the top of the baby's head, called the circumference, which is then compared to others of the same age and sex using the standardized growth chart.
This condition is most often caused by genetic abnormalities interfering with the growth of the cerebral cortex during the first few months of pregnancy.
Babies may also be born with microcephaly if their mother abused drugs or alcohol or became infected with a cytomegalovirus, rubella (German measles), varicella virus (chicken pox), or Zika virus during pregnancy. It is also possible for the condition to occur if the mother was exposed to certain toxic chemicals or had untreated phenylketonuria, which is a harmful buildup of the amino acid phenylalanine in the blood, during pregnancy.
When contracted through a virus, such as the Zika virus, there is often widespread tissue and cell damage that leads the brain to shrink.
There are a few other conditions that can also cause microcephaly:
- Craniosynostosis: The premature fusing of joints between bony plates that form an infant's skull. Treatment usually involves surgery to separate the fused bones. If there are no underlying problems in the brain, this surgery allows the brain adequate space to grow and develop.
- Severe malnutrition
- Chromosomal abnormalities: Microcephaly is often associated with neurometabolic syndrome, Down’s syndrome, and other chromosomal syndromes.
Aside from surgery to treat fused skeletal bones, there is no known cure for microcephaly. Treatments focus on managing the neurological disabilities and deformities associated with the condition.
Depending on the child and the severity of the case, treatment will usually consist of supportive therapies. This type of therapy helps the child reach their full potential.
Also, occupational therapy can help microcephalic children develop speech and physical coordination. Another option is taking medicine to help control hyperactivity, neuromuscular, and/or seizure symptoms.
Individuals with microcephaly may live a normal life span. In severe cases, however, babies born with the condition die in infancy.
- Microcephaly Information Page: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
Microcephaly information sheet compiled by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS).
- Microcephaly in Children
- Microcephaly - Mayo Clinic
Microcephaly — Comprehensive overview covers causes and management of this rare neurological condition.