Signs of Dyslexia in Young Children
As a disability advocate and writer who covers disability issues, I have observed that learning disabilities can be difficult to detect in children. Many students struggle with reading, writing, and math at one time or another. When elementary school students struggle in these areas on a continuing basis over time, however, they may have a learning disability such as dyslexia.
Definition of Dyslexia
Dyslexia is a language-processing disability. Children with dyslexia have symptoms that persist consistently for more than six months, such as having difficulties in reading, writing, and processing and expressing language. Dyslexia may also affect children physically and impede the development of their social skills.
Young children with dyslexia tend to be unusually early or late in reaching milestones such as crawling, walking, and talking. They have trouble communicating and relating socially to their peers. Concepts such as the days of the week, the alphabet, colors, shapes, and numbers are difficult for children with dyslexia to grasp. It is also difficult to name people and objects.
They are slow to understand the connection between sounds and letters. Young children will be slow to develop fine motor skills such as holding a pencil correctly, using zippers and buttons, or brushing their teeth.
Reading and writing problems
Struggles to understand instructions
Has an unusual pencil grip – could be fistlike, awkward, or tight
Finds letters, words, numbers, sequences, and verbal explanations confusing
Problems in fluently reading age-appropriate material
Is unable to repeat a phrase that has just been said in the proper order
Difficulty understanding content read silently or aloud
Has difficulty putting thoughts into words, tends to speak in incomplete sentences
Lack of interest and confidence in their reading ability
Mispronounces some words and stutters when stressed
Learning and remembering new words is challenging
Is stuck in details when trying to stay on topic and state a point
Tends to guess unfamiliar words rather than analyzing them correctly
Struggles to speak with correct grammar, a varied vocabulary, and accurate words
Listening and taking notes is challenging
Has difficulty in pronouncing words correctly
Has problems reading and writing words and letters in the right order, and Problems remembering printed words
Frequently stops while speaking or using filler words such as “um”
Difficulty comprehending word problems in math
Has problems in understand rhyming such as in nursery rhymes
Confuses small words such as “to” and “at”
Difficulty using new words correctly
Spelling rules are hard to master - spelling is inconsistent and phonetic
Struggles to tell the differences between similar words
Words are not consistently spelt correctly
Difficulty understanding idioms, humor, and puns
Problems with proofreading and correcting their work
Has slow or poor memory and recall of facts
Older children struggle to fully develop ideas through writing
Not understanding non-verbal communication cues such as body language, tone of voice, and mood
Older children tend to express ideas in a disorganized way
Struggles to express their feelings
Older children have problems with organizing writing assignments
Social, emotional and other challenges
Complains of physical problems when they read such as headaches, dizziness, or stomach aches
Difficulty with tasks that depend on memorization
Trouble developing and keeping friendships
Complains of seeing or feeling non-existent movement when copying, reading, or writing
Has problems remembering facts and numbers
Difficulty keeping a positive social status and fitting in to a peer group
Seems to have vision problems, yet eye exams do not identify what is wrong
Struggles to understand spatial concepts and direction
Struggles to feel confident about getting to know and their ability to get along with their peers
Is uncoordinated and clumsy in team sports or playing ball
Is not consistent in doing daily tasks
May confuse spatial concepts such as left and right – could be ambidextrous
Difficulty with fine and or gross motor tasks
Struggles to learn new games or puzzles
Struggles to count objects and deal with mone
Prone to motion sickness
Has difficulty telling time or managing a schedule
May be very disorganized or compulsively orderly
Prone to ear infections
Extreme behavior such as being too quiet, a troublemaker, or a class clown
Low or high pain tolerance
The video below shows how dyslexia affects an elementary school child's ability to function in a school environment and the impact it has on academic performance.
Problems caused by dyslexia going undetected
When learning disabilities are not caught early, children will suffer when trying to learn at school . Many children with learning disabilities are average or above average intelligence, but they are unable to spell, read, or write at their grade level. It takes twice or three times as long for them to complete their homework. Unfortunately, school administrators may decide that the children are not “bad enough” or “behind enough” to get the specialized help that they need.
For example, children with dyslexia can do well on oral tests, but not do well on written tests. They learn best through hands-on experience, observation, experimentation, demonstrations, and visual aids. Children with dyslexia may be talented in the performing arts such as story-telling, drama and music, sports, sales, designing, engineering or building.
Parents, caregivers, and teachers may blame the children for their poor academic performance and label them as careless, immature, lazy, stupid, hyper, and having a behavioral problem. The children may be told that they were not trying hard enough and often seem to be lost in daydreams and lose track of time.
As a result, children with learning disabilities:
- Have poor self-esteem
- Think that they are stupid
- Try to hide and cover up weaknesses
- Become frustrated and emotional when dealing with reading or tests in school
- May become victims of bullying
About one-third of children with learning disabilities also have attention deficit disorder (ADHD), which has symptoms such as difficulty paying attention, hyperactivity, hypersensitivity, and impulsiveness.
When parents see these symptoms, they should write them down and share the information with a medical professional. Once children have been diagnosed, parents and caregivers can work with school administrators and teachers to ensure that these children's educational needs are met.
© 2014 Carola Finch