Types of Speech Impediments
Born With a Speech Impediment
I was born with a speech impediment (also referred to as a speech disorder). With myself I had a tough time with rolling my "Rs" and I struggled with producing the "th" sound. I also had a tendency to speak fast which at times would make my speech very difficult to understand.
There are a number of types of speech and language disorders that people have to deal with. We will consider six of them:
- Apraxia of speech
- Speech Sound Disorder
We will now consider each of these one at a time.
King George VI of England
Stuttering (also known as stammering) may be the most well known speech disorder. Stuttering is when a person repeats the first half of the word. It also may involve the prolonging of a syllable or involuntary pauses. Stuttering is a speech impediment which can both be developmental or acquired. It can also be linked to low self-esteem, anxiety, or a traumatic experience from childhood.
Stuttering was brought into the spotlight with the movie The King's Speech. The movie highlighted King George VI's real life struggle to overcome stuttering with the help of his speech therapist, Lionel Logue.
Apraxia of speech
Apraxia involves the inconsistent producing and rearranging of speech sounds. For instance potato may become totapo.
There are two types of this speech disorder:
- Developmental: It is evident from childhood and is generally present from birth.
- Acquired: It is evident in adults and is generally a result from a psychical injury or stroke.
Interventions for Speech Sound Disorders in Children
Speech Sound Disorder
A speech sound disorder involves difficulty producing certain sounds. With me this primarily involved difficulty producing the "r" and "th" sounds.
Speech sound disorders are subdivided into two categories of speech disorders:
- Phonetic disorders: This is also commonly referred to as articulation disorder. These types of speech impediments involve the individual having difficulty in learning to produce certain sounds physically.
- Phonemic disorders: These types of speech impediments involve the individual having difficulty learning the sound distinctions of a language.
It is possible for a person to struggle with a mixture of both phonetic and phonemic.
Cluttering is a speech disorder which affects the person's fluency. This can happen if the person has a tendency to speak really fast. This can also result when an individual continues to repeat themselves in order to try to make them self understood.
With me cluttering was coupled with my speech sound disorder. When I was a child I did speak really fast and had a tendency to repeat myself in order to be understood. This was a tendency I had to overcome in order to deal with my speech sound disorder.
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Lisps are a speech impediment most common among children who are struggling to produce certain speech sounds.
There are four aspects to a lisp:
- Inderdental lisp: This takes place when the tongue pops in and out during speech.
- Lateral lisp: This is a reference to the wet sound which is produced due to air breaking away from the sides of the tongue.
- Dentalised lisps: This takes place when a person put their tongues and pushes air outward. This results in the production of muffled sounds.
- Palatal lisp: This takes place when the tongue's mid section brushes against the soft palate.
Muteness is a speech disorder which involves a complete inability to speak. This could be either developmental or acquired.
Another type of muteness is referred to as selective muteness. Selective muteness involves an individual (generally a child) who has the ability to speak fluently but is unable to in certain settings. This is widely viewed as an anxiety disorder.
Speech Disorders Can Be Overcome
We have just identified six types of speech disorders. There are a number of other types as well. The one thing that most speech disorders have in common is that with speech therapy and hard work these can be successfully overcome.
© 2012 CJ Baker