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Lysozyme - An Antibacterial Enzyme and a Cause of Egg Allergies

Updated on January 31, 2015
AliciaC profile image

Linda Crampton is a teacher with a first class honors degree in biology. She writes about human biology and the scientific basis of disease.

Lysozyme is an antibacterial enzyme that is present in human body secretions and fluids and in egg white.
Lysozyme is an antibacterial enzyme that is present in human body secretions and fluids and in egg white. | Source

Lysozyme is an antibacterial enzyme found in body secretions, including saliva, mucus, tears and human milk. The activity of lysozyme is part of our body's first line of defence against invading microbes. The enzyme is very helpful in areas that aren't protected by a skin barrier.

Lysozyme is also a major component of egg white, where it helps to protect the environment around the developing chick. In addition, it's added to certain foods, medications and vaccines as a preservative. Commercial lysozyme is generally obtained from egg white. Unfortunately, some people are allergic to this lysozyme. The enzyme is one cause of egg allergies.

Microbes growing on agar in a Petri dish
Microbes growing on agar in a Petri dish | Source

Alexander Fleming and the Discovery of Lysozyme

The discovery of lysozyme may be a great example of serendipity in science. Serendipity is the act of making an unexpected or fortunate discovery while searching for something else. The enzyme was found by Alexander Fleming - the same scientist who discovered penicillin.

At the time of the discovery, Fleming was involved in studying microorganisms. He was known as an untidy scientist. His laboratory was filled with Petri dishes containing microbes growing on agar. They were piled on lab benches in a seemingly disorganized fashion. However, Fleming's collection actually helped him with his discoveries.

One day in 1921 when Fleming had a cold, a drop of mucus fell from his nose on to a Petri dish that he was examining. Although most accounts describe this event as accidental, which makes a nice story, Fleming may have deliberately added mucus to the dish out of curiosity.

Bacteria cultures were growing on the nutrient agar in the Petri dish that Fleming was examining. Agar is a jelly-like substance obtained from algae. When nutrients are added to agar, it becomes a good growth medium for bacteria. Fleming discovered that the bacteria around the mucus drop in the Petri dish died. After further investigation he realized that a protein in the mucus was responsible for the death of the bacteria. (Enzymes are a type of protein). Fleming named the protein lysozyme.

The Gram Staining Method of Classifying Bacteria

Bacteria are categorized into two major groups based on their reaction to specific stains. The classification method was created in 1884 by Hans Christian Gram, a Danish scientist.

After the gram staining process has been performed, gram positive bacteria have a purple cell wall and gram negative bacteria have a pink cell wall. The different results are due to the fact that gram positive bacteria contain more peptidoglycans in their cell wall. Not all bacteria can by differentiated by gram staining, but many can.

How Does Lysozyme Destroy Bacteria?

Lysozyme works by destroying the protective cell wall of bacteria. The cell wall is the outer covering of a bacterial cell. One of its jobs is to withstand the pressure created by the fluid inside the cell and to keep the cell intact.

The wall contains chains made of molecules called peptidoglycans. Lysozyme breaks some of the bonds that hold the peptidoglycans together. As a result, the cell wall weakens and the bacterial cell bursts, a process known as lysis.

Lysozyme is more effective against gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative bacteria because gram-positive bacteria contain far more peptidoglycans in their cell wall. Despite this limited action, lysozyme is a valuable part of the immune system.

Peptidoglycans in the Cell Wall of a Bacterium

Lysozyme breaks some of the bonds between the peptidoglycans in the cell wall of a bacterium.  NAG stands for N-acetylglucosamine and NAM stands for N-acetylmuramic acid.
Lysozyme breaks some of the bonds between the peptidoglycans in the cell wall of a bacterium. NAG stands for N-acetylglucosamine and NAM stands for N-acetylmuramic acid.
Some people are allergic to the lysozyme in chicken eggs.
Some people are allergic to the lysozyme in chicken eggs. | Source

Egg Allergy

The human immune system is complex, fascinating and awesome. It normally does a wonderful job of protecting us from the potentially dangerous microbes that we are exposed to every day. Sometimes the immune system needs help in the form of prescribed medications, however. In some people it makes a mistake and attacks a substance or material that isn't a threat to the body.

When someone has an egg allergy, their immune system mistakenly attacks one or more proteins in eggs, producing an allergic response. In this type of response the immune system overreacts to a harmless stimulus. There are proteins in both egg yolk and egg white. Since the proteins are more abundant in the white, however, this part of the egg is usually the cause of an egg allergy. Lysozyme is one protein in egg white that can trigger an allergic response.

An Allergist Discusses Egg Allergies

An Egg Allergy Survey

Have you ever had an egg allergy?

See results

Possible Symptoms of an Egg Allergy

Symptoms of an egg allergy range from mild to serious. Sensitive people may experience one or more of the following symptoms after eating or even touching eggs.

  • skin rash
  • hives
  • runny nose
  • sneezing
  • wheezing
  • difficulty in breathing
  • stomach pain
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea

Anyone who experiences symptoms such as those listed above should see their doctor to get a diagnosis and treatment advice.

Egg allergies are more common in children than in adults. The American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology says that 70% of children with an egg allergy no longer have the allergy by the time they reach the age of 16. Sometimes an allergy persists into adulthood, however. It may even appear for the first time when a person is an adult. This variation in the allergy's presence is why the questions in the egg allergy survey above refer to both the past and the present.

Dealing with an Egg Allergy and Egg Substitutions for Baking

More Information about Egg Allergies

The American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology website has more information about egg allergies.

Anaphylaxis

An uncommon but very serious result of an egg allergy is anaphylaxis, which can sometimes develop rapidly. Anaphylaxis is a body-wide allergic reaction that involves a dramatic drop in blood pressure, severe difficulty in breathing and sometimes loss of consciousness. The condition is life threatening and is a medical emergency.

People with a severe allergy may be prescribed an epinephrine auto-injector. They must carry this around with them in case they are accidentally exposed to an allergen, such as components of eggs. Epinephrine is a hormone that expands the airways, making breathing easier, and constricts blood vessels, counteracting the drop in blood pressure. The hormone is also known as adrenaline.

Cooked eggs
Cooked eggs | Source

Tips For Avoiding Egg Allergy Symptoms

This Mayo Clinic webpage lists the major allergenic proteins in eggs and gives suggestions for preventing egg allergy symptoms.

Lysozyme Allergy

Egg allergies are usually caused by a protein other than lysozyme. Nevertheless, allergies to lysozyme from eggs do exist.

If someone is allergic to lysozyme, they will have to do more than simply stop eating eggs. Lysozyme from hens' eggs is added to many prepared foods as well as to some types of wine, some medications, some influenza (flu) vaccines and the yellow fever vaccine. The ability of the enzyme to destroy many bacteria makes it a good preservative in these products. In addition, any food with added eggs or egg whites contains lysozyme.

If someone is allergic to a component in a vaccine, this doesn't necessarily mean that the person should refuse to be vaccinated. It would be a good idea to receive the vaccine in a medical facility containing emergency medications and equipment instead of in a pharmacy or a workplace, however. As always, a doctor should be consulted about medical matters.

Some people may be allergic to the lysozyme in uncooked eggs but not to the lysozyme in eggs that have been cooked for a long time at a high temperature. Nobody with a severe allergy should experiment with this idea outside of a medical setting, however. Another possibility is that someone who is allergic to lysozyme but to none of the proteins in egg yolk may be able to eat the yolks of eggs. This is unlikely, however, because it's almost impossible to completely separate an egg yolk from the egg white. It definitely shouldn't be attempted in someone with a severe egg allergy.

Anyone with a lysozyme allergy should check the ingredient list on a prepared food carefully or check with the product's manufacturer to ensure that no lysozyme is present. One problem with checking ingredient lists is that manufacturers may not be required to list lysozyme as an ingredient if it's present in a very small concentration. This may not matter in someone with a mild lysozyme allergy, but it could be very important in someone with a severe allergy.

A boiled egg for breakfast
A boiled egg for breakfast | Source
Denaturation in a cooked egg; the unfolding and tangling of paper clips is used to illustrate the idea of unfolded and tangled protein fibres in cooked egg white
Denaturation in a cooked egg; the unfolding and tangling of paper clips is used to illustrate the idea of unfolded and tangled protein fibres in cooked egg white | Source

How to Unboil an Egg

Unboiling an egg at the University of California Irvine

Unboiling an Egg and its Importance

Lysozyme is involved in a recently discovered process that sounds amusing but could have practical importance. Strange as it may sound, scientists have discovered how to unboil an egg - or in other words, how to change the solid egg white of a boiled egg back into a liquid again. Specifically, they've learned how to obtain normal and useable lysozyme from cooked egg white.

Egg white is rich in proteins, which are made of chains of amino acids. The chains are folded into complex shapes. The shape of a protein is vital to its function. If the protein is misfolded or changes its shape, it can no longer do its job. This is a very serious condition inside the human body, which contains many vital proteins.

During boiling (and some other stresses) proteins are denatured. "Denaturation" means a change in shape. Chemical bonds holding the protein chains in the correct shape are broken. The chains then unfold and become tangled. This process is responsible for egg white changing from an almost colourless liquid to a white solid when it's boiled or otherwise cooked.

The new procedure for recycling lysozyme from cooked egg white was developed at the University of California Irvine. The process is surprisingly quick and easy. It requires minutes to complete, compared to an older method that requires days.

In their experiment, the researchers added a chemical called urea to cooked egg white, which turned the white into a liquid. They then put the liquid in an instrument called a vortex fluid device, which applied shear stress to the egg white proteins. As a result, the lysozyme chains in the egg white untangled and refolded correctly.

The value of the new discovery is not that an egg can be unboiled, which might seem like an unnecessary action. Instead, its value lies in the fact that it demonstrates that lysozyme fibres that have become tangled - and perhaps the fibres of other proteins - can be quickly returned to their normal state. This could have valuable applications in both industry and medicine.

Lysozyme is an interesting and useful enzyme. Studying the protein and its behaviour could have important benefits for health and help us to better understand the fascinating world inside the human body.

© 2015 Linda Crampton

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    • billybuc profile image

      Bill Holland 2 years ago from Olympia, WA

      I always enjoy your articles. They are well-written, understandable, and informative.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much for the kind comment, Bill.

    • profile image

      kingantia 2 years ago

      Can i befriend you @Alicia?

    • MartieCoetser profile image

      Martie Coetser 2 years ago from South Africa

      Linda, this hub about egg-allergy and Lysozyme is extremely interesting, and very well presented. Readers like I, who find science beyond our comprehension, can understand this. Thank you!

    • Perspycacious profile image

      Demas W Jasper 2 years ago from Today's America and The World Beyond

      I wonder if the science for "unboiling" egg whites could have an application in Mad Cow Disease and a related but rare disease which just claimed the life of the first woman to become speaker of the Utah Legislature? Her rapid demise (November to January 5, 201r) at age 46 was described as "proteinsom the brain that fold and cause others in the brain to fold bringing on death in the one in a million who get the disease"?

    • bdegiulio profile image

      Bill De Giulio 2 years ago from Massachusetts

      Hi Linda. Very interesting article. I am allergic to many things but thankfully not lysozyme or eggs. Thanks for the education.

    • PegCole17 profile image

      Peg Cole 2 years ago from Dallas, Texas

      This is fascinating information and a surprise to me as I've never had a problem with eggs. You have a way of explaining science so that it is interesting.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, kingatia. Welcome to HubPages. I'm looking forward to reading your hubs.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much, Martie. I appreciate your visit and comment!

    • Lady Guinevere profile image

      Debra Allen 2 years ago from West By God

      I am egg tolerant or intolerant. I can eat up to two eggs a day without getting hives. More than that I get hives really bad. I am also allergic to penicillin and get hives with that too. I am also allergic to the protein in dair, Casien. I get cysts when I consume any dairy. I can tolerate very little of it such as cream soups, but not more than that. I am so glad that you wrote this hub because I really had no idea about that protein in the eggs.

      I am so glad that science is finding these things out now.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, Perspycacious. I was thinking about mad cow disease when I wrote the last section of this hub. I very much hope that the knowledge gained from unboiling an egg will be applicable to mad cow disease and other diseases that involve protein misfolding or unfolding. The more that scientists learn about unfolded and tangled proteins the better. Thanks for the comment.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, Bill. Thanks for the comment. Like you, I have some allergies, but I've never been allergic to eggs.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much for the kind comment, Peg!

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      I'm sorry about your allergies, Lady Guinevere. They sound very unpleasant! It's good that you can eat at least a small amount of egg. I'm glad that scientists are finding out more about allergies and proteins, too. The human body is amazingly complex. There's so much to learn about it.

    • Faith Reaper profile image

      Faith Reaper 2 years ago from southern USA

      I do have allergies, but not to eggs. Well, I eat eggs often and hope I am not allergic! I'll have to be mindful to see if I start my allergic reactions next time I eat eggs.

      The unboiling of eggs is fascinating.

      You certainly provide us with great insight into many varied topics of interest in your articles.

      Up +++ tweeting, pinning, G+ and sharing

      Blessings

    • profile image

      ignugent17 2 years ago

      I remember I got egg allergies when I was 8 or 9 but I did not stop eating eggs. Now I think I am not allergic to eggs because I am not having reactions when I eat one.

      Thank you for sharing your great hub.

      Have a wonderful day! :-)

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, Faith. Thank you very much for the visit. I always appreciate your lovely comments and the kind votes and shares. Blessings to you, too, and best wishes for the week ahead.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      It sounds like you grew out of your egg allergy, ignugent17! Thank you very much for the kind comment. I hope you have a great day and a great week.

    • Lady Guinevere profile image

      Debra Allen 2 years ago from West By God

      I know and it is wonderful to know there are real things taking place in our bodies and not caused by imaginary beings. There are alternatives to things that I am allergic too, such an almond milk instead of dairy. Every once in a while I can have some chees on a pizza, but I cannot eat ice cream. That endend me up in the local clinic with cysts they had to lance a coupld of weeks ago. I love icecream though.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Cysts sound like a horrible consequence of a dairy allergy, Debra. I would be very sad if I couldn't eat ice cream! I have noticed the growing number of alternate food products in stores, though, like almond milk and rice and soy equivalents of ice cream. I've tried some of these and like them.

    • Lady Guinevere profile image

      Debra Allen 2 years ago from West By God

      The medical term of these cysts is hidradenitis suppurativa. You can google it. Unless the internt has changed it won't have an allergy to Milk or dairy. I did lots of research on this and then after I got some information from a support group it was taken down. I am guessing the reason why was the push for people to drink or consume dairy. That was quite a few years ago. People tht I mention about an allergy to milk argue with me tht it is hormones or something that is added to the food of the cows who eat it, like anitibiotics. They also think tht it is simply lactose intolerence. I wish it were that simple because there are lots of things to correct or aid in that.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      I hope the problem is eventually solved, Debra. It sounds very frustrating as well as unpleasant.

    • BlossomSB profile image

      Bronwen Scott-Branagan 2 years ago from Victoria, Australia

      Thank you for a very interesting and informative hub. I love eggs and fortunately am not allergic to them but wheat always gave me hives as a youngster. Our bodies are intricately made and we're all different.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, Blossom. Thank you very much for the comment. I find wheat problematic, although I'm not allergic to it. Eggs have never been a problem for me, though.

    • DDE profile image

      Devika Primić 2 years ago from Dubrovnik, Croatia

      I like eggs too and you opened my mind to another part of life here. Always interesting and so helpful from you. Voted up, and useful.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you for the comment and the votes, Devika.

    • Nell Rose profile image

      Nell Rose 2 years ago from England

      Fascinating stuff Alicia, I didn't realise it was also in saliva, and no I have never had an egg allergy. always love your hubs, I learn something new! voted up and shared, nell

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, Nell. Thanks so much for the comment, the vote and the share. I always appreciate your kindness!

    • Huntgoddess profile image

      Huntgoddess 2 years ago from Midwest U.S.A.

      I am really confused now!

      You must be a chemist, right?

      Well, I love eggs, so I'm guessing I do not have an allergy?

      Up, interesting --- even though I really don't understand very much. I'm trying, though. LOL

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, Huntgoddess. I'm a biology and chemistry teacher, not a chemist. I would say that you probably aren't allergic to eggs if you love them and can eat them with no problem! Thank you for the visit and the votes.

    • Huntgoddess profile image

      Huntgoddess 2 years ago from Midwest U.S.A.

      I see. Well, you know a lot, at any rate.

      Yes, I also think I am not allergic to them.

      I hope you are not allergic? That would be very sad.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi again, Huntgoddess. No, I'm happy to say that I'm not allergic to eggs!

    • Huntgoddess profile image

      Huntgoddess 2 years ago from Midwest U.S.A.

      Glad to hear that. No pancakes, crepes, etc.

      That would be horrible!

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      It certainly would! There are egg substitutes that can used in baking, though, like the ones shown in the second video in this hub. They would be very useful for someone with an egg allergy.

    • Peggy W profile image

      Peggy Woods 2 years ago from Houston, Texas

      Hi Linda,

      I did not realize until talking one day to my cousin on the telephone that he is allergic to eggs. I think that he will find this of interest as well as others reading this informative hub. Thanks for writing it!

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you, Peggy. I appreciate the comment very much.

    • Larry Fields profile image

      Larry Fields 2 years ago from Northern California

      Hi Alicia,

      This outstanding hub is informative, well researched, and well-written. Voted up and much more.

      I have numerous allergies and food sensitivities -- including eggs, which I can eat in small quantities as minor ingredients in other foods. Otherwise, I feel out of sorts.

      About ice-cream . . . I have issues with the quantity of milk proteins that goes into regular IC, but not with butter, which is arguably the finest taste in the universe. I like the fake IC from Trader Joe. Their best flavor is cherry chocolate chip.

      About unboiling an egg . . . A better trick would be to put the toothpaste back into the tube.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you so much for the kind comment and for sharing the interesting information, Larry. I appreciate the votes, too. I like some of the fake ice creams as well. Cherry chocolate chip sounds like a delicious flavour.

      I'm eagerly awaiting the discovery of how to put toothpaste back into the tube!

    • Pamela99 profile image

      Pamela Oglesby 2 years ago from United States

      Excellent information for people with egg allergies. I liked the information about Fleming also. Very useful and interesting article.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much for the visit and the comment, Pamela.

    • drbj profile image

      drbj and sherry 2 years ago from south Florida

      Thanks, Linda, for adding to my knowledge about Fleming and his discoveries. I knew of Penicillin, but Lysozyme? Who knew? ;)

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you, drbj. I appreciate your visit!

    • Huntgoddess profile image

      Huntgoddess 2 years ago from Midwest U.S.A.

      Ok, thanks for the info, Alicia. I will tell anyone who needs to know.

      I tried to be vegan once, a long time ago, for several years. I never really could find an adequate substitute for eggs in baking. (Or anything else, really. I had major health problems back then. I don't think I will ever want to be vegan again.)

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, Huntgoddess. Thank you very much for the comment. It was interesting to read about your personal experience with veganism.

    • Huntgoddess profile image

      Huntgoddess 2 years ago from Midwest U.S.A.

      Thanks, Alicia. After a while, I realized that I wanted to be vegan primarily because of all the problems with factory farming, but then I realized there were local farmers who sold grass-fed meat that is healthy and humane.

      So, now I buy that, and stay away from factory farming --- whenever possible.

      I lost my gallbladder and three teeth to veganism :-(( I think I probably should have at least added cheese and eggs.

      Thanks for your comment.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Veganism appeals to me very much, since I'm an animal lover and hate the horrors that are frequently part of factory farming. I've heard about other people with health problems that appear after following a vegan diet, however. Certain nutrients would be harder to obtain in the diet. I try to compromise, as you do, Huntgoddess.

    • Huntgoddess profile image

      Huntgoddess 2 years ago from Midwest U.S.A.

      Yes, true, I also do love animals. Some of these local farmers have won humane awards for treating the animals well.

      I'm sure I could have and should have been much smarter back then, about a better way to do it properly, without compromising my own health.

      Yes, there are nutrients that are missing or more difficult. I like the compromise idea, though. It never hurts to learn as much as possible.

      Thanks again, Alicia.

    • Larry Fields profile image

      Larry Fields 2 years ago from Northern California

      Hi Alicia and Huntgoddess,

      The conversation-stopper about Veganism is Vitamin B-12. At the moment, it is not possible to get this nutrient from plant-based sources. However you can get B-12 from supplements, whose contents come from bacteria raised in stainless steel vats, or from vitamin-fortified foods. Example: certain cold breakfast cereals.

      Back in the bad old days, almost all non-cheating Vegans earned Darwin Awards. However in principle, a Vegan could get adequate B-12 from thoroughly boiled swamp water. Why? Because various animals 'make use' of the swamp. Bon appetite.

      And yes, a certain seaweed can 'test positive' for B-12. So what?

      People who have never consumed recreational chemicals sometimes test positive for one or more of these. Employers sometimes fire people because of things that show up on an el cheapo TLC plate, which is intended to be a preliminary screening tool. And they don't bother to follow up with a more accurate and more expensive test. The same principle applies to seaweed that 'tests positive' for B-12.

      If you want to be be a healthy Vegan, you need to be scientifically literate. There are secondary nutrient issues, in addition to B-12. Meat-is-murder propaganda is no substitute for homework, coupled with well-honed analytical abilities.

      On the whole, Vegans are less healthy than Lacto-Vegetarians. But LVs tend to be healthier than American omnivores. Is this second inequality true, because meat and/or factory farming are inherently 'evil'? I doubt it.

      LVs tend to eat more fruits and veggies than omnivores, and these foods contain various healthful micronutrients. Example: the anti-carcinogen, lycopene, in tomatoes.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, Huntgoddess and Larry. You've both raised good points. I agree with you, Larry. A vegan would definitely have to do research to ensure that they are get all the nutrients that they need, including Vitamin B12 and the best forms of omega 3 fatty acids. I know that there is now an algal source of DHA (one of the omega-3 fatty acids found in some fish) which I would definitely take if I became a vegan. Life does seems to be getting easier for vegans.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image

      FlourishAnyway 2 years ago from USA

      Unboiling the egg is a mindblowing concept, one I certainly never heard of. And I never never considered just how dangerous an egg allergy could be. I'm allergic to nuts and have had pretty serious reactions from pecans but it sounds like eggs are a very serious matter given their role in vaccines. We just never used to hear so much about allergies like we do now. Awesome hub! Voted up and more and pinning.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much for the comment, Flourish. I appreciate the vote and the pin, too. We do seem to be hearing a lot more about allergies today. I'm sorry about your nut allergy. That must require a lot of caution.

    • aviannovice profile image

      Deb Hirt 2 years ago from Stillwater, OK

      Wow, fascinating is right! I love your science reports, they really show me how more things work.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much for the kind comment, Deb!

    • Huntgoddess profile image

      Huntgoddess 2 years ago from Midwest U.S.A.

      Thanks, Alicia. Thanks, Larry.

      The topic is very interesting. I do have some vegan friends, so I want to keep on top of things, even though I am no longer vegan myself.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      You're welcome, Huntgoddess. Thanks for the visit.

    • Kimberleyclarke profile image

      Kimberley Clarke 12 months ago from England

      Fantastic article, thank you. I stopped eating eggs a long time ago - I would always get nauseous after eating them. I never had this diagnosed - sometimes you know what is best for your own body! This article has helped me to understand my egg sensitivity better.

    • Kristen Howe profile image

      Kristen Howe 12 months ago from Northeast Ohio

      Linda, congrats on another HOTD! This was another remarkably interesting hub dealing with egg allergies. This was another great hub to read.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 12 months ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much for the comment, Kimberleyclarke. I agree we you - sometimes we definitely do know what's best for our body!

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 12 months ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, Kristen. Thanks for the congrats and the kind comment!

    • FlourishAnyway profile image

      FlourishAnyway 12 months ago from USA

      I'm back to say Congratulations on HOTD!

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 12 months ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much. Flourish! I appreciate your visit.

    • profile image

      Suzanne 4 months ago

      Hi I was googling Lysozymes in an effort to find out if having a high Lysozme count in an acids test would mean one had an intolerance to egg white.

      After reading your interesting article i think it says the Lysozmes are natural in a persons body and are just released as a defensive reaction any type of intolerance reaction , so not necessarily related to egg white itself.

      Is that correct? Many Thanks Suzanne .

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 4 months ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, Suzanne. Yes, lysozyme is produced in the body. Its function is to fight bacteria rather than intolerance. It would be a good idea to ask a doctor to explain the result of your test.

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