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Understanding Iron deficiency And Pernicious Anaemia

Updated on May 23, 2016
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What is anaemia?

When we hear the term anaemia we automatically think about being pale and taking iron tablets. However, as always with the human body, it's not that simple. For a start iron-deficiency anaemia is only one kind - there are many different forms. All are serious and some potentially life-threatening. In this hub we'll concentrate on two of the best known - iron deficiency and pernicious anaemia.

The NHS UK gives the following definition for anaemia:

"Anaemia is a condition where the amount of haemoglobin in the blood is below the normal level, or there are fewer red blood cells than normal.

There are several different types of anaemia and each one has a different cause, although iron deficiency anaemia is the most common type."


As we can see from this definition, anaemia can be more complex than first thought, so let's have a look at this condition in a little more depth.

Injury or other medical conditions where loss of blood occurs can also lead to anaemia.
Injury or other medical conditions where loss of blood occurs can also lead to anaemia. | Source

Preventing and treating anaemia

Vitamins & Minerals For Iron Deficiency Anaemia
Iron - a mineral required to make haemoglobin.
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) - has many roles including blood cell production.
Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) - making red blood cells, DNA, RNA and helps to keep the nervous system healthy.
Vitamin B9 (folic acid) - has a role in making DNA, RNA and red blood cells but contributes to many more body activities.
Vitamin C - helps iron to be absorbed into the body more easily. Also for healing and overall health.
Vitamin E - helps to keep red blood cells healthy.

Our blood and anaemia

Iron deficiency anaemia is the most common form. In order to understand more about the complaint we'll first of all take a look at our blood and how anaemia affects it.

Human Blood:

The blood is made up of certain elements:

  • Proteins and various other chemicals that have important functions.
  • White blood cells - they fight off infections and pathogenic organisms.
  • Platelets - these clot the blood when we get an injury such as a cut.
  • Red blood cells - that take oxygen around the body.
  • Plasma - is a yellowish fluid and is the largest component of the blood. Other substances within the blood such as the cells, nutrients etc., are carried within the plasma, so transported throughout the body.

It is the red blood cells that are our main concern when talking about anaemia.

Red Blood Cells

These are by far the biggest group of blood cells and they are also called erythrocytes. They are so small that one drop contains millions of these tiny cells. However, their role in the body is crucial for health and for life. Their main function is to deliver oxygen to body tissues and to take away waste such as carbon dioxide.

The cells are coloured red because of a special protein called haemoglobin which contains iron. The mineral iron is essential to help the body make the haemoglobin. If we didn't have haemoglobin then oxygen taken into the body wouldn't be transferred around the body. In addition, the waste product carbon dioxide attaches to the haemoglobin as soon as it releases the oxygen. The carbon dioxide will then be taken to the lungs to be expelled.

Red blood cells last about 120 days and then die off but the body keeps a constant supply going by continually making new red cells in bone marrow. In order for the body to be able to do this we must take essential nutrients in our diet. In particular:

  • Iron
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamins - B2, B9, B12,
  • Vitamins C and E

These minerals and vitamins have a particular role to play in the health and production of red blood cells. You can have a look at the table in this hub for a better idea of what these nutrients do.

Let's now look at the different types of anaemia and their causes.

The bone marrow where red blood cells are made and showing the variety of cells contained within it.
The bone marrow where red blood cells are made and showing the variety of cells contained within it. | Source

Common forms of anaemia

Iron deficiency anaemia

This is obviously the most common form of anaemia and depending on the cause can develop rapidly. In other words, it's not just lack of minerals such as those named earlier in the diet there can be other causes such as:

  • Heavy menstrual periods - women should take additional nutrition as well as iron at these times.
  • Growth spurts in young people - it's important to ensure that growing youngsters have all the nutrients they need at these times and extra when required.
  • Pregnancy - taking a balanced diet packed with nutrients is the best way to avoid anaemia in pregnancy.
  • Medical conditions where there is poor absorption of iron such as Crohn's Disease.
  • Internal bleeding especially from the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Diseases of the blood such as thalassaemia. This is the name for a group of inherited blood disorders where the body's ability to make red blood cells is affected.
  • Bone marrow problems
  • Other medical conditions such as kidney disease, leukaemia.

As we can see there are a number of factors that may contribute towards iron deficiency anaemia other than diet. In addition, having anaemia can lead to other medical complications such as being more prone to viruses and infections. In severe cases anaemia can even lead to disruption in the heart's rhythm and heart failure.

The main symptoms of iron deficiency anaemia are caused by a lack of oxygen getting to the body tissues and are described as:

  • Being constantly tired and lethargic - some people also feel a little breathless at times.
  • Some people look pale. When anaemia occurs the body keeps blood for essential organs and reduces the amount to less important areas such as the lower, inner eye. When you go for an examination and your doctor suspects anaemia, they will probably look inside your lower eyelid to see how pale it is. This is a classic symptom of anaemia.
  • Other symptoms may develop but are less common such as palpitations, headaches, lack of taste and tinnitus.


If you are prone to iron deficiency anaemia there are many sources of this mineral around other than supplements. The common stinging nettle is very rich in iron and can be eaten in a variety of ways.
If you are prone to iron deficiency anaemia there are many sources of this mineral around other than supplements. The common stinging nettle is very rich in iron and can be eaten in a variety of ways. | Source
Pernicious anaemia can only be treated by injection of vitamin B12 - called Hydroxocobalamin.
Pernicious anaemia can only be treated by injection of vitamin B12 - called Hydroxocobalamin. | Source

Pernicious Anaemia

Pernicious Anaemia

The most common reason for people having a lack of vitamin B12 in their body - apart from dietary deficiency or medical disorders - is due to pernicious anaemia. This is an auto-immune condition affecting the stomach. An auto-immune condition is one where your body's immune system, for some reason, starts to attack healthy cells somewhere in your body.

Vitamin B12 is absorbed into the body from the stomach. The stomach has specialised areas called the parietal cells that excrete a unique protein called the 'intrinsic' factor. This chemical helps to take out the B12 contained in food and absorbs it into the body. With pernicious anaemia this protein is destroyed by the body's own immune cells.This leads to a deficiency in vitamin B12. Why this condition arises is not yet known. However, according to NHS UK and other medical institutions there are certain factors that increase the chances of developing pernicious anaemia:

  • Female - the chances of having pernicious anaemia are slightly higher than for men.
  • Age - this condition usually starts at about the age of 60 years old.
  • Family history/genetics - if the condition runs in the family you are more likely to develop it.
  • Other medical conditions - in particular if a person has another auto-immune disorder - for example Addison's Disease - medical research has shown a link with them and pernicious anaemia.

In order to replace the vitamin B12 that can't be absorbed into the body, an injection has to be given - usually B12 is given in a form called hydroxocobalamin. Administering the B12 in this way by-passes the stomach ensuring that the vitamin gets into the body systems.

What does Vitamin B12 do?

Vitamin B12 carries out a lot of work in the body such as:

  • keeping nerve cells in good condition and helping to make DNA. However, in relation to anaemia it's vital role is to help keep blood cells healthy. Lack of vitamin B12 in the diet or the inability to absorb it through the stomach can have serious health consequences. Another type of anaemia can also be caused by vitamin B12 deficiency and this is called Megaloblastic anaemia. This is where the blood cells are slightly enlarged and fewer in number than the normal count. This leads to less oxygen being carried around the body - vitamin B12 helps to rectify this condition.
  • Helps to make red blood cells, DNA & RNA
  • Works with folate to regulate blood cell production
  • Helps iron to work more efficiently


For most people, B12 deficiency shouldn't be a problem as the body stores large amounts of this vitamin. However, foods that are good sources for B12 are - meat, fish, dairy products and fortified cereals.

Signs and symptoms

  • People can experience a variety of neurological symptoms for example, tingling, numbness - usually in the legs or arms. Other symptoms include being clumsy, unco-ordinated movements, personality changes. This is in addition to the usual signs and symptoms of anaemia such as lethargy, tiredness etc.

Test Your Knowledge

Food and anaemia - what should you be aware of

There are particular foods that, when taken with others that are rich in certain nutrients, can actually block them being absorbed into the body. To explain this further I've given brief descriptions of what foods shouldn't be eaten together when preventing or treating anaemia.


Foods to avoid taking together if you have anaemia

Iron deficiency anaemia - when taking foods that are rich in iron be careful about having high fibre foods at the same time. Fibre can cause iron absorption problems. However medical researchers are divided on the subject of just how much fibre can influence nutrient absorption.

Taking high fibre foods and iron rich foods at different times is much better for treating and preventing iron-deficiency anaemia. However, as always, speak to a medical professional first. This article is for information only. In addition, the Canadian School of Natural Nutrition, (CSNN), recommend also that people with iron deficiency should avoid drinks such as tea, coffee and soft drinks, as well as foods with lots of additives as these can all block absorption of iron.



B12 deficiency - As with iron rich foods, don't eat B12 rich foods at the same time as high fibre items.


B9 (Folic Acid Deficiency anaemia) - this is another common form of anaemia and is usually caused by lack of vitamin B9-folic acid in the diet. Since the body cannot store folic acid a fresh supply is needed frequently. Folic acid is essential for helping the body make new cells including blood cells and a lack of this in the diet can lead to anaemia. The symptoms are usually the same as those for iron deficiency anaemia. Other causes of this type of anaemia can be pregnancy - where the supplies of folic acid are used to help the growing baby. Some medical conditions and medicines can also cause this type of anaemia.

When preparing food avoid over cooking as this can destroy folic acid. Eating vegetables raw are one of the best sources of folic acid.


I hope this hub has been of some use to everyone who has anaemia. However, this article is for information only and if you suspect you have anaemia you should speak to your doctor as soon as possible.

Comments

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  • onegreenparachute profile image

    Carol 3 years ago from Greenwood, B.C., Canada

    This was very interesting to me because my youngest daughter has very low iron. Thanks for all the great information. Voted up and useful and shared.

  • Nell Rose profile image

    Nell Rose 3 years ago from England

    Hi Seeker, really great information. Anaemia of any sort is such a complicated thing, too much of this, lacking in that etc. this is so useful for anybody with the symptoms, easy to read and great explanation too, voted up and shared! nell

  • DanaTeresa profile image

    Dana Strang 3 years ago from Ohio

    This was very interesting. I suffer from iron deficiency anemia. I take iron supplements one to two times a day. It is so incnvenient, but If I don't my hemoglobin drops dramatically. It was interesting to learn a little more about the role of B12. I also have to be sure I get enough B vitamins because I cannot eat cereal, pasta na dother fortified foods. This was a good reminder of that.

    Very well presented.

  • Eiddwen profile image

    Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales

    Interesting and useful Seeker7.I have suffered from iron deficiency in the past but knew nothing of other strains.

    Thank you for sharing and enjoy your day.

    Eddy.

  • onegreenparachute profile image

    Carol 3 years ago from Greenwood, B.C., Canada

    Thanks for this hub Seeker. My daughter has very low iron and I think I finally understand her problem. Very well written and loads of information. Voted up and shared.

  • Rosemay50 profile image

    Rosemary Sadler 3 years ago from Hawkes Bay - NewZealand

    Another awesome and informational hub. I didn't know tere were different types of anaemia and I have never given any thought as to what foods should not be eaten with other foods. Perhaps needs a re-look when planning our meals.

    Some great advice on what vitamins and minerals are neded to our blood where it should be (in the veins Lol) you know what I mean :))

    Ah there are those nettles again, rich in iron :))

    Voting Up and U,A & I

  • Gypsy Rose Lee profile image

    Gypsy Rose Lee 3 years ago from Riga, Latvia

    Thank you for this informative and interesting hub. Much needed information. I need to take more vitamins. When I was in grade school my doctor prescribed these really strong iron pills. Then the teen years seemed to take care of themselves and I only took multivitamin tablets. However in university I had another bout with anemia but this time the doctor said it wasn't as bad and suggested that each night I have a glass of potent red wine - Zinfandel. Passing this on.

  • kashmir56 profile image

    Thomas Silvia 3 years ago from Massachusetts

    Hi my friend, very interesting and useful information within this well written article. Well done !!!

    Vote up and more !!! Sharing !

  • James-wolve profile image

    Tijani Achamlal 3 years ago from Morocco

    Very helpful and interesting.Thanks so much for the information.I voted up.

  • prasetio30 profile image

    prasetio30 3 years ago from malang-indonesia

    Very informative hub and I learn many things here related with anaemia. Thank you very much for teaching about valuable things. We should know about this. Voted up!

    Prasetio

  • Frank Atanacio profile image

    Frank Atanacio 3 years ago from Shelton

    thank you Seeker7 for making this hub easy to read and follow :)

  • Bumpsysmum profile image

    Bumpsysmum 3 years ago from Cambridgeshire

    Very interesting Hub. I have been lucky and only had anaemia once in my life but it was very debilitating. A course of iron put it right and then increasing my iron intake daily. I was interested in the fibre v. iron part as we all tend to stuff ourselves with everything without really understanding what we're doing. I have quite a high fibre diet but take multivitamins so hopefully I'm getting enough iron! And as for not drinking tea - I'd rather die!! I have tea in my veins. I will print this for reading later, thanks for sharing. Up and useful.

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi onegreenparachutem glad that you found this hub useful as well and many thanks once more for your visit. Hope the info will help your daughter - anaemia isn't much fun and can make you feel so low and lethargic!

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi Nell, many thanks for stopping by and glad that you enjoyed the hub. Many thanks too for the vote up - greatly appreciated!

  • Rosemay50 profile image

    Rosemary Sadler 3 years ago from Hawkes Bay - NewZealand

    I thought I had commented on here days ago, must not have hit the 'post comment' button.

    A very useful hub Helen. Some good information on what symptoms to watch out for and what vitamins etc, we need to keep our blood right. Had to smile at those nettles being one way to get some iron into the blood :))

    UP U,A & I

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi DanaTeresa, many thanks for stopping by and for taking the time to leave a comment.

    I take iron supplements as well and I used to take the tablet forms but they never did agree with me - and I'm with you on it being a pain to take them!! I take liquid iron formulas now and what a difference they have made. They also include the vitamin B complex and I only have to take the liquid once a day.!

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi Eddy, lovely to hear from you, hope your having a nice weekend!

    Yes, iron deficiency is literally a pain! I have iron-deficiency and also megaloblastic anaemia so have to make sure my B12 levels are okay as well.

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi onegreenparachute, many thanks for your comment and hope your daughter does get over her anaemia soon!!

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    LOL!!! Hi Rosemay - yes I do know what you mean!! And yes the lovely stinging nettles - I couldn't resist giving them another plug as I always disliked them in the summer, hoping I'm going to be much more respectful towards them now!

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi Rasma, lovely to hear from you and glad you enjoyed the hub!

    Yes, anaemia can be funny in that everything is fine and then it just seems to creep up again when we least expect it. I think for many women this is a general problem that we just have to live with.I love the idea of the 'red wine' and as far as I can tell it does work!!!

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi Tom, lovely to hear from you and glad that you enjoyed the hub! Thanks also for the share - greatly appreciated!!

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi James-wolve - many thanks for stopping by and glad you found the hub interesting - thanks also for the vote up, greatly appreciated!!

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi parasetio30, many thanks for stopping by and glad that you enjoyed the hub - thanks also for the vote up, greatly appreciated!

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi Frank - lovely to hear from you and glad you enjoyed the hub!

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi Bumpsysmum, as always, lovely to hear form you and thank you for the vote up and share - greatly appreciated!

    I agree about anaemia being debilitating it does make you feel so dam awful, thankfully for most of us the cure is quite simple, although it can take a few weeks for the iron/haemoglobin to build up.

    LOL!!! Anaemia or not, there is no way I'm giving up coffee! My life would be crap without my caffeine to give my brain cells that kick in the rear end it needs so often nowadays!! I think that's the worst thing about reading up on the latest findings for health and when they advise things such as low fibre with iron foods, in a few years time they often change their minds again - like the famous egg scare a few years ago! So I would say that if what you've been eating and the way you eat it has kept you healthy, then don't change - and of course that includes your cuppa!!!

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi Rosemay, you definitely did comment a few days ago and I remember replying - I think there are gremlins in the works with this site at times!!

  • Gypsy48 profile image

    Gypsy48 3 years ago

    Informative hub. Eight months ago my iron level was very low and because of my age (64) my Dr. had me have a endsocopy and colonoscopy. Those tests were okay. I started taking iron tablets and b-12. My last test results came out fine. Like you I cannot give up my coffee. Voted up and helpful:)

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi Gypsy48, lovely to hear from you and glad that you enjoyed the hub!!

    Yes, what would us writers do without our tea or coffee - I just can't imagine me getting through writing a hub without my quota of caffeine!!

  • piuyshbook profile image

    piuyshbook 3 years ago

    Its great to read you as reading you is fun for me and a big like from my side for you

  • unknown spy profile image

    IAmForbidden 3 years ago from Neverland - where children never grow up.

    horseradish leaves are very rich in irons and ampalaya. i used to be anaemic. i don't really take medicines for that i just eat iron-rich foods.

  • ComfortB profile image

    Comfort Babatola 3 years ago from Bonaire, GA, USA

    Very informative and useful hub. Congratulations on winning the HOTD award.

  • John MacNab profile image

    John MacNab 3 years ago from the banks of the St. Lawrence

    Thank you seeker7, you've answered quite a few questions for me. Voted up and across.

  • Ky Cardinal profile image

    Ky Cardinal 3 years ago from Louisville, Ky

    Great pictures and very informative. I enjoyed it even though I don't have this condition.

  • renegadetory profile image

    Carolyn Dahl 3 years ago from Ottawa, Ontario

    Excellent use of diagrams and well written! Anaemia is a concern for me and my daughter since we are vegan... and being vegan we have to eat MORE foods with iron than people who consume meat. Thank you for posting this valuable information.

  • ktrapp profile image

    Kristin Trapp 3 years ago from Illinois

    After reading this, I have to agree with you that iron deficiency is indeed more complex than maybe we tend to think. Just yesterday I was talking to a friend who was telling me that her father was having shortness of breath and the doctors weren't sure of the cause. While getting a test, the technician told him maybe he should find out if he is anemic since his hemoglobin was just a little low. He did get it checked, and not only did he find out that he was anemic, but found out that the cause of it was a tumor in his colon. Luckily for him, the colon cancer had not spread beyond his intestines and after having the section removed, chemotherapy was not even required. I believe this is due to catching it early since he was aware of the slight difference in his breathing and pursued the cause. It just goes to show you that it's important to find the cause of the anemia, in addition to just treating it.

  • RTalloni profile image

    RTalloni 3 years ago from the short journey

    Thanks for an interesting look at anaemia and its treatment. Congrats on your Hub of the Day award for posting helpful information that could be helpful to many people.

  • Jlbowden profile image

    James Bowden 3 years ago from Long Island, New York

    Seeker7;

    A very thorough and informative article about anemia's. You certainly touched upon all the different angles that can lead up to this blood condition. Many will find the information you provided in your article, useful in so many ways. And congrats on having your article voted as hub of the day. Keep up the good work and thank you for a very interesting read!

    Jlbowden

  • CASE1WORKER profile image

    CASE1WORKER 3 years ago from UNITED KINGDOM

    I never knew there were different types of anemia- I have had iron deficiency several times, especially after the births of my three children- the last requiring a blood transfusion. I suffer from ceoliac disease so it was the absorption of iron that did it- the doctor tested my iron levels as usual but they dropped in a few weeks . Apparently the doctors said that my usually pale face was as white as the pillow I was lying on- thanks for this informative hub

  • heaneyl profile image

    heaneyl 3 years ago

    Hi, this is a really informative hub! I wish it had been posted a year ago. A tumor was discovered after a near collapse, and it turns out I was severely iron deficient because the tumor was bleeding. It, along with half of my stomach, was removed and I now require intramuscular B12 shots monthly for the rest my life. The first things I notice when I'm due for an injection are lethargy and the inability to focus.

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi to you piuyshbook - glad that you enjoyed the hub and thank you for 'the like'!

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi unknown spy - I've never tried horseradish leaves I'll need to give them a go. Yes, if we can take iron naturally then that's even better.

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi ComfortB,

    many thanks for the congrats! Glad you enjoyed the hub.

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi John MacNab, glad that you enjoyed the hub and many thanks for the vote up!

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hello Ky Cardinal, many thanks for the visit and glad you enjoyed the hub!

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi renegadetory, many thanks for stopping by and glad that you found the hub useful!

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi Ktrapp,

    This is really interesting about youir friend's father - often tumours in the bowel don't have that many if any symptoms, so that technician is a life saver!!! And yes, anaemia can be a symptom of something much more serious so I agree, it's always better to get it checked out.

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi RTalloni,

    Many thanks for stopping by and glad that you enjoyed the hub - thanks also for the congrats.

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hello JLbowden,

    Many thanks for stopping by and glad that you enjoyed the hub. Thanks also for the congrats - greatly appreciated!!

  • JenwithFlash profile image

    Jen 3 years ago

    Thanks for the information! I've had anemia in the past and I've been feeling like I need to get checked soon. Thanks for the reminder!

  • Victoria Lynn profile image

    Vicki L Hodges 3 years ago from Arkansas, USA

    Very interesting and well explained. Congrats on HOTD! Many votes!

  • stephanieb27 profile image

    stephanieb27 3 years ago from United States

    Great information here! I found out only a few weeks ago that I have low iron levels. There is so much to learn, I've never given much thought to what I eat until now! :)

  • RealityTalk profile image

    RealityTalk 3 years ago from Planet Earth

    Very interesting and very informative Hub. Thanks for researching and writing it.

  • techygran profile image

    Cynthia 3 years ago from Vancouver Island, Canada

    Congratulations on being HOTD! And an excellent treatment of topics that are often on the minds of vegans and women! Tweeted!

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi Case1worker, many thanks for stopping by and for your very interesting comment. I'm sorry that you have such a distressing condition as ceoliac disease - I know a male colleague of mine that I worked with a few years ago had it, and he had a very difficult time for a number of years before finally getting it under some kind of control! I remember him telling me that it basically ruled his life as there was certain things he didn't want to do in case an 'episode' would start.

    Yes, childbirth can take your iron levels way low and in a very short space of time as well. I take it you must be prone to iron deficiency if you've had it in addition to the times when you had your babies? I can take bouts of it as well, but that's just due to my diet - I don't like the taste of meat at all, so I tend to take mostly veggie and I've been fine for a while now. But when it is happening is very unpleasant and causes all sorts of problems physically and mentally - I used to get quite low in mood with anaemia. I don't think my colour was as 'white as a pillow' I was more just a yucky, as the say in Scotland 'peely-wally'! LOL!

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi heaneyl, many thanks for stopping bye.

    That's awful about your bleeding tumour! It's quite shocking just how much blood loss there can be from the main system due to a tumour, no wonder you were anaemic!

    Yes, the B12 shots are a must for so many people and I know some of my clients used to find them a drag at times, but when they felt really crappy, as you obviously do when the next injections are due, they were glad to have them! That's also interesting about your inability to focus when your due the vitamin B12, I wonder if that's also to do with the health of the nervous system that B12 helps with?

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi JenwithFlash - (I take it Flash is you horse?) he/she is absolutely beautiful!!!

    Many thanks for stopping by and hope if you are needing a boost from iron and the vitamins that your feeling better soon!

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi Victoria Lynn, many thanks for stopping by and thanks for the congrats. - much appreciated!!

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi stephanieb27, many thanks for stopping by and glad that you enjoyed the hub! I think we're all guilty of not really paying attention to things like our iron levels. We all enjoy food for the taste first and what's in the food second and I'm just as guilty as anyone else. LOL!

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi RealityTalk, many thanks for taking the time to leave a comment and glad that you enjoyed the hub!

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi techygran, many thanks for stopping by and glad that you enjoyed the hub! Thanks also for the congrats and the tweet - very much appreciated, thank you!

  • Claudia Tello profile image

    Claudia Tello 3 years ago from Mexico

    I also have a scientific background and could be writing scientific related hubs such as this one, but never seem to get them done!!! Now that I have seen your examples I might be learning a couple of great ideas from you. Quizzes for example seem to be a fantastic way to make them interactive and more interesting as you did in this hub. I have never used that tool but you have now encouraged me! Congratulations on your Hub of the Day award.

  • Seeker7 profile image
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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hello Claudia Tello, many thanks for stopping by and glad that you enjoyed the hub! Here's hoping that you will start to write your own scientific hubs - people are always looking for this kind of information and let's face it, we're spoilt for choice in the scientific field. I think with the quizzes, yes people do enjoy them and I also think it makes the writing of the hub more enjoyable for us as well.

    Many thanks again for stopping by and for the congrats - really appreciated. And good luck with your own hubs!

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    Mohamed Hashem 3 years ago from Egypt

    This is a fantastic post . Thanks for the useful information .

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    Helen Murphy Howell 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland

    Hi superpost, many thanks for stopping by and glad that you enjoyed the hub!

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