10 Types of Highly Sensitive People

"Beauty of whatever kind, in its supreme development, invariably excites the sensitive soul to tears" - Edgar Allan Poe

As a highly sensitive person, I scour the Internet and search bookshops on a regular basis in search of more material that may help to shed yet more light on this wonderful gift we highly sensitive people know as the HSP trait. Amazingly though, on my travels both through cyber-space and through countless bookstores, I experienced a strange phenomenon which has enthused with me with hope. Once upon a time, I, like many other highly sensitive people, had no inkling as to why I was unable to toughen up, despite repeated exposure to trying situations and enough public humiliations to fill 2 lifetimes of a normal person, I was still as sensitive as ever! Then I found The Highly Sensitive Person by Elaine Aron, a fellow HSP and to cut a long story short, I stopped feeling like an alien among humans from that point onwards.

The Baader-Meinhof Phenomenon Rocked My World

First of all, let me just explain what the Baader-Meinhof phenomenon is. This phenomenon occurs when a person discovers information that was previously unknown to them, like a name or a concept - and very soon afterwards encounters the same information again, and again and again! As I mentioned earlier, once I discovered that I was a highly sensitive person (HSP) I began to see references to sensitivity 'everywhere' I looked. It was incredible just how many types of sensitivity I discovered that all differ slightly from one-another in subtle ways, but are most assuredly the same thing - HSPs - just labeled differently. This led me to want to share this information with other highly sensitive people out there and so without further ado, here are the other 10 terms for highly sensitive people. Enjoy!


The Orchid Child

Although the term includes the word 'child,' i'm certain that the children who were and are being studied are simply HSPs. This most colorful term was coined by a professor of family studies and human development so it is no surprise then that only children and their parents are being studied.

According to Professor Bruce Ellis, Orchid children are "biologically sensitive to context" which simply means they are somewhat more sensitive than their 'Dandelion' cousins who are able to thrive in and adapt to any environment they may find themselves in.

Commenting on a recent article written on the issue, Bruce Ellis had this to say on the matter:

“Most children survive and even thrive in whatever circumstances they encounter, like dandelions,” Ellis said. “Nurtured with quality parenting and programs, orchid children can blossom spectacularly into society’s happiest, most productive people. Conversely, given poor parenting and sketchy surroundings, they are at greater risk to end up wrestling with depression, substance abuse issues and even jail.”

Thank you for that most valuable information, professor. I'm 100% certain that these children are highly sensitive people (HSP), the similarity is unquestionable and this 'Orchid Child' discovery only serves to strengthen my sense of hope for the future of HSPs.


The Sensory Defensive Person

Patricia Wilbarger, an occupational therapist and counseling psychologist coined the term 'sensory defensiveness' some time in the nineties but it wasn't Professor Wilbarger who became famous for the term. It is Sharon Heller, a college professor, who is most associated with this term. A sensory defensive person herself, Heller discovered Wilbarger's work on sensory defensive infants in 1996 and it was a discovery that was to both help Heller understand herself more and reveal the condition to the rest of the world. Heller went on to write a book on sensory defensiveness called 'Too Loud, Too Bright, Too Fast, Too Tight' which needless to say, no doubt drew the attention of many a HSP.

Here is how Sharon Heller describes sensory defensive people:

  • Annoyed by certain textures that come into contact with their skin
  • Startled easily by sudden, loud noises
  • Sensitive to touch and very ticklish
  • Are uncomfortable with bright lights and too much visual stimuli
  • Uncomfortable in crowds
  • Sensitive to strong odors
  • Dislike certain foods because of the texture and feel

Once again, highly sensitive people are the subject of study but it seems that each study is approaching sensitive people from a slightly different perspective. Each researcher's research and findings tend to be limited to the area of their expertise and so there has yet to be any correlation made between the many studies and cases of each particular researcher. All in good time...


Thin Boundary Person

Ernest Hartmann, MD, of Tufts University came up with his 'boundaries' concept in the 1980s while studying people who suffered from nightmares. During his research, he was intrigued to discover there was a small percentage of people who were able to recall their dreams in rich and vivid detail, even when the dream was particularly sketchy. How interesting that the ability to recall dreams with clarity is an ability attirbuted to HSPs! Clearly, these 'thin boundary' people and HSPs are one and the same. Here is the irrefutable evidence. Hartmann also discovered these people:

  • Become overwhelmed and tired when bombarded with sensory and emotional input
  • Feel pain or pleasure much more than the average person
  • Are more at risk of allergies and illnesses
  • Suffer more when experiencing trauma as children
  • Are overly affected when exposed to bright lights, loud noises, strange smells and all sensory stimuli

Is it just me or are thin boundary people exactly like HSPs? Interesting.

The Sensitives

During my research I have not been able to discover the first person to coin the term 'sensitive' as a noun, however, I did stumble upon many different websites, videos and books which have been written about the 'sensitives' as they are called.

Psychic Ability

As well as the usual traits and behaviors always associated with highly sensitive people, in regards to sensitives there is always mention of psychic ability and extra-sensory perception beyond that of normal human beings. Sounds far-fetched, I know but then the proof is in the pudding right? Here are some of the extra-sensory abilities mentioned:

  • Hunches
  • Sensing of other people's feelings
  • Able to 'know' the future
  • See shadows or movement out of the corner of his/her eye
  • When making wrong decisions, experience physical discomfort such as knots in stomach

Well, once again as a HSP the aformentioned abilities remind me of myself and the experiences I have almost on a daily basis with occurrences such as those caused by our innate abilities. I have probably been using (you too) these abilities unknowingly my entire life, in fact I can recall many instances where extra-sensory perception could be responsible. Can you?


The Fantasy-Prone-Person (FPP)

In 1981, American psychologists Sheryl C. Wilson and Theodore X. Barber discovered the FPP trait in people, and stated that it affected about 4% of the population. Obviously, these fantasy prone people spend much of their time fantasizing and are also said to experience the paranormal. Many of these individuals are also deeply religious and have visions and hear voices, much like Joan of Arc was said to have experienced.

Traits of Fantasy-prone-people:

  • Have imaginary friends as children
  • See apparitions
  • Claim to have psychic abilities
  • Have vivid and colorful sensory perceptions
  • Fantasize often as children
  • Are able to heal others
  • Can experience imagined sensations as real

Intriguing indeed. Although some of what is said of the fantasy-prone-person is a little disturbing, once again, there are several similarities with the HSP trait and I have experienced most of the things on that list save for seeing ghosts and healing people. There is a definite connection between Elaine Aron's highly sensitive people and the FPP, that much is certain. Do you see it?


The Electrical Sensitive

In the 1980s, British researcher Michael Shallis surveyed hundreds of people who claimed to be electrically sensitive and the results were quite interesting as for starters most of them were women and what's more, they exhibited the same traits and behaviors as HSPs.

Here is what really stood out in Shallis' survey:

  • 70% of those interviewed suffered from allergies
  • 70% were averse to loud noises and bright lights
  • 23% had been struck by lightning
  • 60% either became physically ill before thunderstorms or were able to sense the approach of one
  • 69% had experienced psychic phenomena

I get the feeling that were Shallis to have conducted his research on a more intense and wider scale, he would have discovered many more similarities between HSPs and electrical sensitives. Perhaps it is a certain percentage of HSPs that are susceptible to the electrical forces of household appliances and street lights etc.

As a youngster I always seemed to have an effect on street lights. Whenever I would walk by them they always flickered and buzzed slightly, as If I were somehow having some affect on them. Have you ever experienced this electrical sensitivity?


The Social Anxiety Sufferer

Some researchers are completely against the idea that 15-20% of all people are highly sensitive and instead blame good old anxiety for the heightened sensory sensations experienced by HSPs. So in other words, we all have social anxiety because we experienced trauma at some stage in our lives, usually as children and we should probably go and seek help from a therapist!

I'm completely against that train of thought as there are highly sensitive people out there who are extroverted and extremely successful due to being brought up in loving families where they were nurtured and supported. However, these people are the minority because most HSPs are misunderstood as children and as a result of this, develop high levels of anxiety and stress which 'only then' leads to PTSD or social anxiety.

Gifted - Dabrowski's Over-excitabilities (OEs)

Kazimierz Dabrowski, (1902-1980), a Polish psychiatrist and psychologist, developed the Theory of Positive Disintegration as a simple means of understanding gifted people. Dabrowski studied gifted children and identified 5 areas of extreme intensity which he termed 'over-excitablities' or more appropriate to this article - 'supersensitivities.'

I won't share all of his findings with you, just enough to show you how similar those deemed to be gifted are to HSPs. It is universally known, that many gifted people were and are extremely sensitive, but the question remains, were they and are they highly sensitive people (HSPs)? Judge for yourself.

Overexcitabilities of the Gifted


  • Impulsive behavior
  • Nervous habits and ticks
  • Physical expression of emotions
  • Sleeplessness


  • Extremely acute senses
  • Prone to allergies
  • Experience discomfort with some textures
  • Pleasure seeking
  • Need comfort


  • Deep curiosity
  • Theoretical thinking
  • Always asking questions


  • Vivid Dreams
  • Love Poetry, music and drama
  • Love fantasy
  • Daydreaming


  • Anxiety
  • Timidity and shyness
  • Loneliness
  • Concern for others
  • Strong memory for feelings
  • Extremes of emotion

Reading through that list, only one word comes to mind - HSP - Right?


The High Reactor

In 1989, a professor of psychology, Jerome Kagan discovered the 'high reactor' temperament while observing the behavior of babies that were being exposed to new objects and situations. In his study, he observed 19 babies but the temperament wasn't revealed until he observed the 19th baby. The baby grew distressed and irritable when faced with new and novel objects and Kagan knew he had found the temperament he was searching for.

During the study which is still ongoing today, Kagan also observed the baby as a 15 year-old teenager and from his observations he was able to deduce that babies grew into their temperaments as the young teenager was awkward and shy and always worried what other people were thinking of her.

Kagan and his colleagues have discovered that 15-20% of people are born predisposed to be anxious, in other words highly sensitive!

15-20%? Isn't that the same number that Elaine Aron stated, in regards to the number of HSPs in the human population? More food for thought.

The Emotional Empath

Empathy is a trait all highly sensitive people possess in abundance, some much more than others but this empathic nature is nothing new as emotional empaths have been around for far longer than HSPs, at least as far as the name is concerned. Personally, I am pretty sure that anyone classed as an emotional empath is basically just another highly sensitive person with far more gifts than just possessing extremely acute empathy.

Here are just some of the gifts an emotional empath possesses:

  • Empaths are extremely uncomfortable in crowded places and become overwhelmed with the immense amount of stimuli present in large gatherings of people
  • As is normal for HSPs, empaths not only sense emotion in others but also soak up the emotion and feel it as if it were their own
  • Empaths sense dishonesty in others
  • Empaths often feel drained and fatigued especially after a prolonged period in the presence of a group of people
  • Are highly creative
  • Empaths are drawn to nature
  • Love to daydream
  • Possess excellent listening skills
  • Cannot stand to be around narcissistic people

Another sensitive type that bears all the hallmarks of a HSP. By now, we can see that there is a familiar pattern here. Each of these classifications is merely the same thing, only it is labeled differently.

The Labeling May Be Different but the Package Is Most Definitely the Same!

There are even more classifications out there than I have shown in this hub believe it or not. However, for me to include them all would be pointless as I'm sure you have already fathomed that although the label is different, the packaging is without a shadow of a doubt, the very same thing - a highly sensitive person!

Isn't it wonderful to see just how many studies have been carried out on sensitive people and children over the last few decades. I was once of the opinion that nobody really cared about the sensitive branch of humanity but after all my research and information gathering I realize I was mistaken. Perhaps there aren't many types of us, but it is refreshing to see so much interest in our trait. Boy oh boy, do I love being a highly sensitive person!

"Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed people can change the world. Indeed. It is the only thing that ever has." - Margaret Mead


Which of the Above Resonates with You the Most?

  • Orchid Child
  • Sensory Defensive Person
  • Thin Boundary Person
  • A Sensitive
  • Fantasy-Prone-Person
  • Electrical Sensitive
  • Social Anxiety Sufferer
  • Gifted
  • High Reactor
  • Emotional Empath
  • I'm Happy with the HSP term. I'm used to it now.
See results without voting

More by this Author

Are you a HSP? What are your thoughts? Please Share. 19 comments

K. Burns Darling profile image

K. Burns Darling 4 years ago from Orange County, California

Up until today I had not heard the term HSP, but I recognize most of its traits in what I see in myself. I was always the child who was easily frightened or startled, I had imaginary friends, I felt other people's pain as deeply as my own, I saw the occasional apparition, I dislike crowds intensely, cannot stand the feel of some fabrics, the textures of some foods, have allergies, am light and sound sensitive.... You get the picture. In other words, I have spent the majority of my forty-five years wondering what in the heck it is that is wrong with me? Why do I cry at the drop of a hat? Why can't I get over it all ready, and as you so eloquently put it, "toughen up." Thank you for this enlightenment, I am intrigued by it, and will be doing some more investigating on my own, as I have a five year old daughter who is exhibiting signs of being just like me. Well written, very informative, voted up, useful, awesome, interesting, and shared!

AudreyHowitt profile image

AudreyHowitt 4 years ago from California

Wow what a great hub! I had not heard this term before, but it makes really good sense when you read about it. I am an emotional empath--and my daughter is very sensitive about the things that touch her skin--clothing, seam lines etc. Nice to put a name to it

Faith Reaper profile image

Faith Reaper 4 years ago from southern USA

Well, there are a lot of them that I have never heard of - what I can't stand and I don't know what category it would fall under, if any, is when I was younger and we played football in the neighborhood, I would just about freak out if I wound up on the bottom of the pile. I felt as though I could not breathe and I started panicking, just an awful feeling, maybe clostrophobic, I guess. I would just started scratching and clawing and hitting my way out from under that pile. Also, what about those people who are always reading about such things as this here and then believe they have what they read simply after reading what they have read, what is that called? Interesting hub. In His Love, Faith Reaper

Mama Kim 8 profile image

Mama Kim 8 4 years ago

Very interesting. I didn't know there were all these sub-categories for HSP. It's hard for a HSP to fit into just one I think. Voted up!!

meloncauli profile image

meloncauli 4 years ago from UK

This is an extremely interesting hub and researched well. Voted up.

Richawriter profile image

Richawriter 4 years ago from On Top of the World Author

Hey, K.Burns Darling!

Thanks for that wonderful comment. It was music to my eyes to read that you had found out about HSPs through this article and are now able to understand why you are so different.

My aim was to help other HSPs with this series of articles and I'm glad I have been able to do that. I know how hard it can be when you have no explanation for these strange habits. You have the gift too. Another HSP discovered on hubpages. Awesome!

Thanks again and have a great day.

See you soon and peace. :)

Richawriter profile image

Richawriter 4 years ago from On Top of the World Author

Hey,Audrey Howitt!

Thanks for those kind words. :)

Empaths appear to be very close in nature to HSPs but it seems that perhaps Empaths aren't as easily overwhelmed as HSPs by sensory stimulation. Perhaps more by too many emotions coming from others around you. Is that true for you Audrey?

It's brilliant to know that your daughter is also a sensitive soul like you. My mother is a HSP too and because of that, we understand each other and our bond is iron.

Well, thanks for stopping by.

Have a great day! :)


Richawriter profile image

Richawriter 4 years ago from On Top of the World Author

Hey there Faith Reaper.

It's nice to see you over here again!

It sounds like you had claustrophobia when you were younger Faith Reaper, or at least mild claustrophobia.

Well, I'm not sure what you would call a person that does that Faith Reaper, is there a word for that? What do you call a person who reads something and believes they have what they read because they compared the information to their own life experiences?

Thanks for stopping by Faith Reaper, it's always a pleasure!

I'll see you very soon. Peace :)

Richawriter profile image

Richawriter 4 years ago from On Top of the World Author

Hello again, Mama Kim 8!

Nice to see you.

I'm glad you enjoyed the hub and the info.

Thanks for the kind words.

See you soon. Peace :)

Richawriter profile image

Richawriter 4 years ago from On Top of the World Author

Hello and Thanks for those kind words Meloncauli!

I really enjoyed researching and building this hub so for you guys to give these great comments is wonderful!

See you soon. Peace :)

mejohnson profile image

mejohnson 4 years ago

What a great hub, well researched and written. I knew about sensitive people, but not all the different sub-groups.

Richawriter profile image

Richawriter 4 years ago from On Top of the World Author

Hey, mejohnson.

Thanks for the kind words.

Have a great day!

Peace. :)

prairieprincess profile image

prairieprincess 4 years ago from Canada

Rich, bravo! Good for you, for taking on these theories, tying them together. I have had similar thoughts, and this article introduced some new ones to me. I am also interested in the connection between some forms of ADHD and sensitivity. I think there is one, because many of the traits are similar. I wish educators could be trained in the HSP traits because I think many schools try to train the HSP out of the child. Loved this hub, and love what you are doing. Keep up the pioneering work!!!

Richawriter profile image

Richawriter 4 years ago from On Top of the World Author

Oh how I am loving your wonderful comments Prairieprincess!

I'm encouraged to write even more on the topic when I receive such splendidly thoughtful comments, especially from another HSP.

As a teacher, you are in an excellent position to use your sensitivity to help out your students in a big way, when it comes to understanding them and their behavior and feelings. I have no doubt that you do an excellent job.

I may just write on that topic you know, the connection between conditions like ADHD, PTSD and Social Anxiety because first of all I thought I was suffering from social anxiety but then I discovered the HSP trait and I knew the truth.

I knew I was a HSP suffering from social anxiety as a result of childhood trauma.

As you no doubt would agree, I think there are far too many labels that are slapped on children these days in regards to their mental health.

I believe in high sensitivity and social phobia but not all these other denominations, aren't they all just the same thing?

I'll see you very soon and thanks for these awesome comments!

Peace, Prairieprincess! :)

rdsparrowriter profile image

rdsparrowriter 4 years ago

Wow this is very interesting. Though I have not heard the term, discribe so many things about me. I'm just glad to know these things are common... I thought I'm weird, but my mom has been very understanding and encouraging... she always reminds me that I'm normal, not weird, but different :) Thank you for sharing this article :) God bless you!

Richawriter profile image

Richawriter 4 years ago from On Top of the World Author

Hello, rdsparrowriter!

It's music to my eyes to read that I was able to help you to understand just a little more about why you are how you are. Yes, you most certainly are not weird at all, on the contrary you are very special! :)

God bless you too and peace. :)

Denmarkguy profile image

Denmarkguy 3 years ago from Port Townsend

Thanks for this great hub!

The more quality information about High Sensitivity is available in the public arena, the better off we all become. I think the most important thing to emphasize is the fact that being "sensitive" is so much MORE than merely "getting your feelings hurt easily."

Don't know why I previously missed it, but I just noticed you're in Thailand. Elaine Aron and Ted Zeff have both mentioned that Asia-- and especially SE Asia (China, Japan and others) are more embracing of sensitivity as a positive characteristic in a person-- do you find that to be true?



PeggyLou profile image

PeggyLou 3 years ago from Mid-Atlantic States US

So glad to see someone writing on this. I read Aron's book several years ago, and it helped me understand my personal history. You've added some new info for me here that is very helpful. Thank you for your work on this article, Richawriter.

davidspeoplee profile image

davidspeoplee 13 months ago from Kingston

very interesting article. i am one of the emotional ones as well. I enjoyed reading this article.

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